Prevalence of Obesity and Risk Factors in Dogs in Surabaya
Obesity is one of the fastest growing health problems for dogs today. Most investigator agree that as in human, the incidence in the pet population is increasing. Obesity in human is associated with increase risk of fatality for a number disease states and obesity-related deaths for all other preventable conditions in the near future as the same as in pet (German, 2006, Lund et al., 2006). Obesity is defined as the execive accumulation of fat in adipose storage areas of the body leading to increased body weight 15-20% above the optimal physiological weight (Lewis, 1987; Lund et al., 2006). The prevalence of obesity in dogs range from 23%-44% in industrialized country (Mc Greevy et al., 2005; Lund et al., 2006; Edney and Smith, 1986; Diez and Nguyen, 2006). Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia and having high growth in the number of dogs. But there were no data prevalence of obesity in Indonesia espescially in Surabaya.
The risk factors of obesity were breed, age, gender, endocrine disease, sedentery lifestyle, drug, feeding, social factor and number of animal (Colliard et al., 2006; Diez and Nguyen, 2006; Greevy et al., 2005). Diez and Nguyen (2006) reported that the rate of obesity increase by age. Edney and Smith (1986) reported no clear relation between food types and obesity. Feeding semi-moist was associated with increase risk of obesity (Lund et al., 2006). Females represent 60% of obese dogs. Gonadectomy increases the incidence rate of obesity in male and especially in female dogs. In the dogs, a lack of exercise is the factor in the development of obesity (Diez and Nguyen, 2006).
The sample size was determined by Martin et al. (1987). The cross sectional study design used to examine BCS of dogs in Surabaya. The BCS were assigned by use of a 5-point scale. A BCS of 1 was reported for thin, 2 for lean, 3 for optimal, 4 for overweight and 5 for obese (Elliot, 2006). The risk factor for obesity were also determined from the following variables : age, breed, gender, feeding management, exercise.
Relative risk (RR) use to measure of association between obesity and presumed risk factors (Martin et al., 1987, Lund et al., 2006). When the RR is >1, the factor is found to be associated with an increased risk of that disease. A relative risk estimate does not necessarily reflect a causal relationship, but rather an associated between disease and the predictive factor. Multivariate analysis were performed by use of statistical software.
A total of 342 dogs from all of five area in Surabaya were examined for the BCS. Result show that 10.53% of examined dogs judged to be obese, and 0.58% thin, 11.41% lean, 47.07% optimum and 30.41% were overweight. The relative risk in the multivariate analysis, show that obesity was 1.39 fold in 5 to 10 years dogs and 1.32 fold in over 10 years dogs. The rate of purebred was 1.41 fold than non purebred, medium dogs was 1.47 fold than small dogs, female was 1.37 fold than male, homemade food was 5.71 fold than commercial food and no exercised was 3.7 fold than exercised dogs.
Prevalence of obesity in dogs in Surabaya was 10.53%. The risk of obesity increase by age. There were highly significant correlation between obesity and gender, gonadectomy, purebred, medium breed, homemade food, and exercise. The relative risk were 1.37, 7.35, 1.41, 1.41, 5.71, and 3.7 respectively. Routine recording of BCS in medical record of all dogs is strongly recommended and may aid in the identification at risk patients prior to development of overt obesity. A systematic used of BCS in medical record would also allow to additional prospective and retrospective study on general health risk obesity in the canine population.
- Author : Nusdianto Triakoso
- Source : Proceeding International Seminar : Strategy to Manage Bio-Eco-Health System for Stabilizing Animal Health and Productivity to Support Public Health. Surabaya. 19-20 June 2012.